This release concentrated around improving security and stability of RDB Loader as well as addressing an important AWS SSL update, previously flagged in this Discourse post. Starting with this release, both RDB Loader and RDB Shredder versions will have same umbrella-release number.
In this post, we will cover:
1. SSH tunnels
1.1 SSH tunnels 101
SSH tunnels are often used as an additional security layer around accessing Redshift. These tunnels involve a highly restricted AWC Virtual Private Cloud containing the Redshift cluster and one “bastion host” with its SSH port open to the outside world.
There’s no way to access Redshift cluster or any other host inside this VPC except by routing through the bastion host. And to access the cluster through the bastion host, users need to have an approved SSH identity (and optionally reside in a white-listed subnet).
Before 0.14.0 this architecture was not supported by RDB Loader, and our most security-conscious users had to keep using StorageLoader, where an SSH tunnel could be easily established outside of StorageLoader itself. This setup is much more challenging with RDB Loader, which runs on transient EMR clusters, making it very difficult to bring up an SSH tunnel.
For this reason, in this release we have embedded SSH tunnel functionality directly into RDB Loader.
1.2 Configuring RDB Loader to work with an SSH tunnel
As of this release, RDB Loader supports a new version of the configuration files for Redshift (
2-1-0) and for Postgres (
1-1-0</a>); this new format can optionally include an
This configuration tells RDB Loader to open a temporary SSH tunnel on the EMR master node from
localhost:15151 (an arbitrary port can be chosen, but
port must be the same) to
10.0.0.11:5439, which is the Redshift socket inside the VPC network.
When RDB Loader attempts to open a JDBC connection to
localhost:15151 (as specified in the configuration root), it will actually connect to the Redshift cluster via
an encrypted EMR-to-bastion SSH tunnel.
Security would be at risk if we had needed to store the private bastion SSH key in plain text. So, we have embraced AWS Key Management Service and AWS EC2 Parameter Store, services which let users store highly secure data, such as passwords and SSH keys in encrypted form, specifically:
- AWS KMS lets you create a master key to encrypt and decrypt arbitrary data. Decryption is only allowed for IAM roles that were specified in the key configuration
- AWS EC2 Parameter Store lets you store short pieces of data in either encrypted or plain-text form and then retrieve them if the IAM role (assigned to EMR in our case) has the necessary permissions
This is a huge step forwards for the security and integrity of the RDB Loader. It means that you can audit when a particular AWS role used a particular master key, and even setup fine-grained access to third-party AWS accounts.
2. AWS SSL Update
On September 19, Amazon emailed Redshift users that all certificates currently installed on Redshift clusters will be replaced with ACM issued ones.
As a consequence, all clients using SSL and outdated/non-native JDBC drivers were not be able to connect to Redshift after October 23, 2017. Unfortunately, all releases of StorageLoader and the 0.12.x and 0.13.x versions of RDB Loader fall into this category.
In this release of RDB Loader, we have updated the native Redshift JDBC driver bundled with RDB Loader to the latest version; this version can connect to Redshift via SSL and also fixes the previously observed issues with SSL connections to Redshift.
If you are a Snowplow user and have a requirement to use Redshift via a secure connection only, then upgrading to RDB Loader 0.14.0 is the recommended way of doing this.
3. Other changes
RDB Loader now also provides the ability not to store your Redshift password in plain text in storage configurations.
Your password can now be stored in the same way as private SSH keys, above, namely in EC2 Parameter Store and encrypted via master key. This approach has the same benefits as a KMS-stored SSH key, and means that you no longer have to have the Redshift password stored in plaintext anywhere.
To enable retrieving password from EC2 parameter store, just replace
password string with object similar to
Version 0.14.0 also includes the latest AWS SDK, which makes it possible to use it from previously unavailable AWS Regions such as ca-central-1 and eu-west-2.
4. RDB Shredder update
We’ve taken advantage of this RDB Loader release to slightly update the RDB Shredder.
We have upgraded the Spark version on which RDB Shredder runs to 2.2.0, and we have made the Shred job more more robust, by allowing overwrites of output data for a particular run. This last change means that the
yarn.resourcemanager.am.max-attempts: "1" configuration is no longer mandatory – particularly useful if the job fails because of some transient issue.
The primary way to run RDB Loader is still via Snowplow’s own EmrEtlRunner, Release 90 and above. You will need to update your
Also, the schema in storage target configuration need to be updated.
For Redshift, change to
For Postgres, change to
Make sure EMR allows outbound connections on bastion’s SSH port and EMR cluster has access to bastion.
To allow EMR clusters to decrypt and use an SSH key from EC2 Parameter Store, you must:
- Add your
EMR_EC2_DefaultRoleby default) to the key users in IAM encryption keys
AmazonSSMReadOnlyAccesspolicty to this role
If you have any questions or run into any problems, please visit our Discourse forum.